Miraculous Gifts of The Holy Spirit

Gift of the Holy Spirit

In the early days of the church, followers of the Lord did not yet have the written word to guide them. That is the reason for the “gifts of the Holy Spirit” which the apostle Paul lists in 1 Cor. 12:8-10.

“For to one is given the word of wisdom through the Spirit, and to another the word of knowledge according to the same Spirit; to another faith by the same Spirit, and to another gifts of healing by the one Spirit, and to another the effecting of miracles, and to another prophecy, and to another the distinguishing of spirits, to another various kinds of tongues, and to another the interpretation of tongues.” This list includes nine “gifts of the Spirit,” all with a common purpose. They needed some means to convince unbelievers that what they were teaching was from God.

Apostles promised the Spirit

When Jesus told the apostles to “Go into all the world and preach the gospel to all creation” (Mark 16:15), He promised both guidance and confirmation of the message that was preached. We see the result of this stated in Mark 16:20, “they went out and preached everywhere, while the Lord worked with them, and confirmed the word by the signs that followed…” Thus, the message they preached was the result of the guidance of the Holy Spirit (Lk. 12:12; Jn. 14:25-26; 16:7-13), and their preaching was confirmed (or proved) by the miracles (signs) which they performed.

Later we read, “God also testifying with them, both by signs and wonders and by various miracles and by gifts of the Holy Spirit according to His own will” (Heb 2:4). The purpose then of these “gifts of the Holy Spirit,” was to deliver and confirm the word of God, so that all could know the truth of what Paul declared, “I thank God that when you received the word of God which you heard from us, you accepted it not as the word of men, but for what it really is, the word of God…” (1 Thess. 2:13).

The “gifts” were to benefit others

The apostle Paul gives some very important information in 1 Cor. 12:4-11 about these “gifts of the Holy Spirit.” First, he shows they were given “of the Spirit…for the profit of all” (1 Cor 12:7). That means they were, “given for the common good.” This is vital, if one would understand the real purpose of these gifts.

Not one of the gifts was given to benefit the person to whom it was given, nor was it for that one’s personal blessing. Thus, the “gift of healings” was to benefit the one healed. The “gift of tongues” was to bless the hearer, not the speaker. Each “gift of the Holy Spirit” was given so that a Christian might serve others with it. Secondly, Paul shows that these gifts were given by “the same Spirit…distributing to each one individually as He wills” (1 Cor 12:11). These gifts were not given in response to man’s desire, but in accordance with God’s will. They were given to fulfill God’s purpose, not to fulfill man’s ego. This is what Paul is addressing in 1 Cor. 12:31 when he exhorts, “earnestly desire the greater gifts.” For he goes on to say, “yet I show you a still more excellent way.” That excellent way is explained in the next verses and is defined as love (1 Cor. 13:1-8).

“Gifts” were not meant to be permanent

So, the apostle Paul shows that these miraculous “gifts of the Holy Spirit” would cease (or be done away with) someday. He wrote of three of these, as typical of the nine that he had named (1 Cor. 12:8-10). “Love never fails; but if there are gifts of prophecy, they will be done away; if there are tongues, they will cease; if there is knowledge, it will be done away. For we know in part and we prophesy in part; but when the perfect comes, the partial will be done away” (1 Cor 13:8-10). The term for “the perfect” in this passage is the Greek “to telion.”

Notice how Greek-English Lexicons define this as meaning: “Complete, perfect, entire, mature, fully developed.” In other words, during the time when the word of God was being delivered to man, these “parts” that brought it into being were necessary. But when the revelation of God was completed, His inspired word delivered and confirmed there would be no more need of these gifts. That inspired word of God (2 Tim. 3:16-17) has now been “…once for all handed down to the saints” (Jude 3) and confirmed by the “gifts of the Holy Spirit” (Heb. 2:4).

James indicates the same

It is evident that the above meaning is correct when we compare 1 Cor. 13:8-10 with other passages. Paul wrote, “For now we see in a mirror dimly, but then face to face; now I know in part, but then I will know fully just as I also have been fully known” (1 Cor. 13:12). Here he says we investigate this “perfect” and see ourselves as in a mirror. When only the “parts” were available, the reflection was dim, hazy and dark. But since “the perfect” came the reflection is clear and we see “face to face” seeing ourselves as we really are. James wrote of this also. He says, “if anyone is a hearer of the word and not a doer, he is like a man who looks at his natural face in a mirror; for once he has looked at himself and gone away, he has immediately forgotten what kind of person he was. But one who looks intently at the perfect law, the law of liberty, and abides by it, not having become a forgetful hearer but an effectual doer, this man will be blessed in what he does” (James 1:23-25).

The “part” was no longer needed

Notice that this passage in James has the same things that Paul wrote about in 1 Cor. 13:8-10. The “perfect” is the “mirror” in which we see ourselves; and that is “the word.” Paul writes again of reading the word of God (2 Cor. 3:1-17), and then adds, “But we all, with unveiled face, beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from glory to glory, just as from the Lord, the Spirit” (2 Cor 3:18). The mirror in James 1, 1 Cor. 13 and 2 Cor. 3 is clearly stated to be the word of God. That is the mirror which is defined as being “perfect” (1 Cor. 13:10, 12; James 1:25). Therefore, when that word was completed, the “parts” that brought it into being were “done away” and “ceased.” The word of God has been delivered and confirmed, thus there is no more need for the “gifts of the Holy Spirit” which brought it to us. We have the “perfect law, the law of liberty.”

Ask Your Preacher

From time to time I will publish these sermons entitled “Ask Your Preacher” by the late W. Curtis Porter. There are in total 5 lessons.

Introduction

This series of fifteen minute sermons has been preached over a number of radio stations. Without manuscript they were preached over Station KOCA, Kilgore,  Texas, and over Station KLCN, Blytheville, Arkansas. In manuscript form they have been delivered over Station KTUL, Tulsa, Oklahoma, and over Station WMBH, Joplin, Missouri. Portions of them have been proclaimed over other stations.  They have always created much interest, elicited many commendations, and resulted in many requests for them to be published in booklet form. In response to such requests they are now being offered to the reading public with a prayer that they may serve the cause of truth and enlighten the souls of men who have been blinded by the doctrines of men. — W. CURTIS PORTER    1947

God’s Plan not Man’s

Preachers have an important place to fill with respect to lost souls.  God saw fit to use them in making his gospel known, which is the power of God to save men.  Hence, Paul said in I Cor. 1:21: “For after that in the wisdom of God the world by wisdom knew not God, it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe.”  Thus we are told that it is God’s plan to save men by preaching.

This plan may seem foolish; so it is called “the foolishness of preaching.”   But it is God’s plan. Remember, however, that is “the foolishness of preaching” that God chose, and not the preaching of foolishness. We might conclude that some have misunderstood God’s plan and have used the preaching of foolishness instead of “the foolishness of preaching.” But in order for God’s plan to be carried out preaching must be done, and preaching is done by preachers. So preachers have an important place to fill. In harmony with this idea Paul said in Rom. 10:14: “How shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher?” In view of such statements we should not minimize the work of the gospel preacher.

However, we must not lose sight of the fact that preachers are required to preach the gospel. Since the gospel is God’s power to save men, the gospel must be preached by the preacher. If he preaches something else, he is going contrary to the will of God, and what he preaches will not result in the salvation of the hearers.  In fact, God pronounces condemnation of the preacher who preaches that which is  contrary  to  divine  truth  revealed through the apostles. In Gal. 1:8 we read this statement from the pen of Paul: “But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed.” This places a great responsibility upon a preacher and condemns him if he preaches the theories and doctrines of men instead of the gospel of Christ as delivered by the apostles.

Preachers are looked upon as leaders of men; and that they should be.  As preachers are  spiritual leaders of men, they are expected to know more about the Bible than any other class of men. This is but the natural thing to expect, for preachers should study the Bible that they may be qualified to preach the gospel to others.  When you have some question that troubles your soul, something about the Bible that you wish to know, you often turn to the preacher for help.  And if it is something that is found in the Bible, he should be willing to give his assistance; or if it is not found in the Bible, he should be able to tell you so.  This is the reason I have selected the title  for  this  sermon  that  I  have — ASK YOUR PREACHER.  I have some questions that I want to present to you that you may present them to your preacher to find out just what the Bible says.  These questions which I shall present are important questions; they are questions that you have often thought about; and your preacher should be willing to help you find an answer to them. Take your pencil and write them down as we go along.  Are you  ready?

Well, here is the first:

1. Ask your preacher where you can find the name of your church in the Bible.  I do not know the name of the church to which you belong, for I do not know who you are that are listening to me at this time. Doubtless many churches are represented among my listeners today. But you know what church You are a member of, if any, and you know the name of the church.  So just go to your preacher and ask him to give you the book, chapter and verse in the Bible that mentions it.  If it is there, he will certainly know where to find it; if it is not there, you have a right to know it. So ask him to help you.

I have read the language of Paul in I Cor. 1:2 in which he addressed  “the church of God which is at. Corinth.” And when he made his farewell address to the elders at Ephesus he said: “Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, Over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood.” Acts 20:28.  In these two passages we have reference to “the church of God.”  Then Paul wrote Timothy after this fashion: “But if I tarry long, that you mayest know how thou oughtest to behave thyself in the house of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth.” I Tim. 3:15.

And here reference is made to “the church of the living God.”  When Paul wrote the church in Rome he said: “The churches of Christ salute you.” Rom. 16:16.  In the section from which Paul was writing there were a number of congregations, and they were sending their greetings to the church in Rome. Hence, Paul said: “The churches of Christ salute you. ” It is an evident fact, of course, if a number of congregations were called “churches of Christ,” one of them would be a “church of Christ.”  Taking all of these Scriptures together, we read of the church of the living God, and the church of Christ. These were not different religious organizations but were simply different designations for the same body of people.  But is it possible to read anywhere in the Bible of any mention of the name of the church to which you belong?  This is an important matter, for the Bible is our guide book from earth to glory, and we should not want to belong to something the Bible says absolutely nothing about.  So ask your preacher to help you find the name of your church in the Bible. He should not become offended if you ask this favor of him.

And Again

2. Ask your preacher where the  Bible says the church is not necessary to salvation. So many times the statement is made that the church does not save you.  Of course, we know that the church is not the Savior. Jesus is our Savior. But the statement as used simply means the church is not necessary to your salvation; that you can be saved on the outside of it as well as on the inside.  Now, you have likely heard your preacher make that very statement many times; and as he is your teacher in spiritual things, he should be glad for you to want to know where to find any such statement in the Bible. Do You not look upon him as a Bible teacher? Certainly you do. Then, if there is any such statement in the Bible, he should know where it is; or if he does not, it should not take him but a little while to find it for you.

I have often read the statement of Paul in Eph. 5:23 which says: “For the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of the church: and he is the savior of the body.” If You will read the verses that follow in this chapter, you will readily see that the term “body” refers to the church. So Christ is the savior of the church. This statement could not be true if he saves men out of the church and before they enter the church. In that case he would be the savior of men out of the church but not the Savior of the church. Yet Paul says he is the Savior of the church. If the Lord saves one man out of the church, he evidently saves all who are saved out of the church. Hence, every person who goes into the church is saved before he enters. Then how could Jesus be “the Savior of the church?” It just wouldn’t be possible. So the statement shows us that the Lord saves men who enter the church, not those on the outside. And while the church is not the savior, it is the institution in which the Savior saves men.  We, therefore, read in Acts 2:47: “And the Lord added to the church daily such as should be saved.”  Every saved person in the city of Jerusalem was added to the church. There was not a saved person in all that city that had not been added to the church. And what was true of the city of Jerusalem has, throughout the ages, been true of every other place. The Lord has added to the church everywhere such as should be saved. And if any one from that time to this has been saved out of the church, he was saved when he should not have been. But in spite of all these statements, you will hear preachers constantly say that you can be saved out of the church. If you have heard your preacher say this, please ask him to tell you where it is found in the Bible.

More to ponder

3.  Ask your preacher where the Bible says one church is as good as another. Perhaps no statement has been made by religious people more often than this. On every hand, from the pulpit and in the pew, you will hear the statement: “One church is as good as another; so it makes no difference which one you belong to.”  Maybe you have said this over and over; and you have heard your preacher preach it all of your life. Then it must be something that both you and he are interested in, and you should want to know just where the Bible makes the statement. I am not asking too much when I ask you to ask your preacher about it, am I? That is what your preacher is for – to tell you where you can find in the Bible the things he preaches. So why not use him? I expect my brethren to use me in this way. And they feel free to make such demands of me.

In Eph. 4:4 I find recorded this statement: “There is one body, and one Spirit, even as we are called in one hope of your calling.” This passage plainly says: “There is one body.” Yet in the face of it we have hundreds  of  conflicting  religious  bodies in the world. Well, one body can’t mean two hundred bodies.  But what does Paul mean by the one body? In Eph. 1:22, 23 he said: “And hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be head over all things to the church, which is his body.” So the body is the church. But Paul says there is “one body.” Furthermore, when Jesus promised to build the church, he said: “Upon this rock I will build my church.” Matt. 16:18. He did not say: “upon this rock I will build my churches.” He mentioned only one -“my church” not churches, If the Lord built but one, and he certainly did for that is all he promised to build, then somebody else must have built all the others. And are we ready to say that any church that man built is as good as the one the Lord built? This is what we will have to say if we contend that one church is as good as another. In Col. 1:18 Paul also declared: “He is the head of the body, the church.” Look at this passage in your Bible – Col. 1:18 – and see just what it says.  I don’t want you to take my word for it, but it will certainly be alright for you to read it yourself and take just what it says. Now, does it say, “He is the head of the BODIES the CHURCHES?”  It does not read that way in your book, does it? But it says: “He is the head of the body, the church.” There is the same number of bodies there is of  heads. How many heads ? He is THE HEAD.  That means just one head, doesn’t it?  All  right.  “He is the head of the body, the church.”  So there is one head, one body, one church.  And since Jesus is the head of only one. somebody else must be the head of every other. Do you believe that a church of which man is the head is as good as the church of which Jesus is the head? You must believe this if you believe that one church is as good as another.

I do not believe that I could found a church that would be as good as the one founded by Jesus, but I believe I could come as near doing that as any other uninspired man. But no uninspired man, or even inspired man, could do that. Jesus died that he might establish his church – he purchased it with his own blood. If man could establish one just as good, without even dying for it, as the one Jesus purchased with his blood, then Jesus died in vain. This would give man more power than the Lord had.  So if your preacher has been telling you that one church is as good as another, just ask him for the scripture that says so. And while he is finding that for you, you might ask him how many churches are mentioned in the New Testament, anyway.

Where can these be found?

  4. Ask your preacher where the Bible says to “join the church of your choice.” In view of what has just been said regarding point No. 3, it is not necessary to say much about this point. But does the Lord allow men to have their choice in matters of this kind? If man is allowed to choose the church that suits him best, then the Lord has no choice in the matter. But since Jesus built but one church, do you think he will allow you to choose one that some uninspired man built in preference to the one he built? The Lord gives you the choice of accepting him or rejecting him, but if you reject him, he will see that you do not go unpunished.  Why not let the Lord have his choice instead of choosing our own way ? But if your preacher has been telling you to join the church of you’ choice, he ought to be able to give you the passage of scripture that says so. So go to him and ask him for it.

Don’t Accept Generic Brands

Companies spend thousands of dollars advertising their brand. It seems to have become a necessity although most of the “brand names” are easily recognizable. But with the introduction of “generic” brands the manufactures want to be sure people are aware of “the real thing.” These generic brands are like their name brand counterparts, but you don’t generally see or hear the generics advertised. The greatest appeal of generic brands is that they do not cost as much. While the generics may be like the name brand, they are not identical, and the careful consumer can distinguish easily between “the real thing” and the imitations.

If we take the principle, the same could be said in the religious world. There is the “real thing” and the “generic.” While on the surface they look the same, a close examination shows the differences.

The Real Thing

After being arrested for healing a lame man and preaching the gospel, Peter and John were asked on trial before the Jewish council, “…By what power, or in what name, have you done this?” (Acts 4:7). Peter had already answered this question at least twice before they were arrested. To the lame man at the gate of the temple he had said, “In the name of Jesus Christ the Nazarene–walk!” (Acts 3:6). Later, when they were preaching on Solomon’s porch, Peter had proclaimed, “And on the basis of faith in His name, it is the name of Jesus which has strengthened this man whom you see and know” (Acts 3:16). So, when the Sanhedrin asked, “By what name,” the answer had already been given, but Peter was not ashamed to announce it again—“let it be known to all of you and to all the people of Israel, that by the name of Jesus Christ the Nazarene, whom you crucified, whom God raised from the dead–by this name this man stands here before you in good health.” (Acts 4:10). Notice that Peter did not offer some generic response of a power or name that was like “the real thing.” He didn’t point to some imitation that was close.

Conclusion

Then, Peter concluded his remarks with this definitive statement, “For there is no other name under heaven that has been given among men by which we must be saved” (Acts 4:12). In that one affirmation of divine truth, the Scripture condemns all religious groups, “churches” and doctrines that do not conform to the name, authority and pattern of Christ.

Would you trust your soul’s salvation to some imitation or generic brand? Or is Christ your only authority?

May a Creed Be Considered Expedient?

In the struggle for independence, our forefathers pledged “life, fortune and sacred honor.” They did so as an expedient way to bring about “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.” This lead to a country founded on freedom never before known. We treasure these freedoms that brave men and women died to obtain. But long before this nation came into existence, Jesus said, “you will know the truth, and the truth will make you free…if the Son makes you free, you will be free indeed” (John 8:32, 36). There can never be real political freedom without spiritual freedom, and Jesus knew it. The really strange thing, to this writer, is that some people, having been set free, unaware of what they are doing, go back into slavery.

“…therefore keep standing firm and do not be subject again to a yoke of slavery” (Gal 5:1). Some of the Christians in Galatia were trying to go back to the law of Moses, from which the death of Jesus had set them free (Gal. 3:19-29). By going back to the old law, they were cutting themselves off from Christ and His blessings: “You have been severed from Christ, you who are seeking to be justified by law; you have fallen from grace” (Gal 5:4). I would feel very confident in stating that leaving Christ was not their intent, but that, in effect, was the result. Christ promised them freedom, but they, by going back to the old law, refused it.

Religious Division Looks For Expedient Way Out

Rom 6:18 tells us, Jesus came that we might be “freed from sin.” He did this by His death onCreeds are supposed to be expedient the cross (Rom. 5:6-10). Jesus not only makes us free from the guilt of past sins; He also makes us free from the practice of sin as we follow His will. That is why Paul wrote, “Therefore there is now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has set you free from the law of sin and of death” (Rom 8:1-2). But there is another freedom that was important to Jesus, and it should be important to us also. That is the freedom from man’s creeds.

At the time Jesus lived, Jewish religion was divided into “sects” (what we would call denominations today). There was the sect of the Pharisees, the Sadducees, the Herodians, the Essenes and probably others. Each of these had their own particular beliefs, which were different from the others. For example, the Sadducees did not believe in spirits, neither angels nor the resurrection from the dead (Acts 23:8). In order to record all their conclusions and have them available to help others follow what they believed, Jewish scribes put their beliefs into what they called “The Talmud.” It contained much of the Old Testament scripture along with commentary of the learned lawyers (doctors of the law) (Lk. 5:17). It all seemed very innocent. They believed certain things, so they wrote them down. On the surface, that seems simple and harmless enough. But it became a disaster.

An Expedient Way?

The Jews were always looking for a reason to discredit Jesus because of what He taught. On one occasion they observed His disciples eating with “unwashed (impure, NASV) hands” (Mark 7:2). They criticized Jesus by saying, “Why do Your disciples not walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their bread with impure hands?” (Mark 7:5). The law didn’t require a Jew to wash his hands before eating. But their “creed” did. Regardless of their reasoning, they were legislating where God had not.

Jesus response came from the prophet Isaiah. “Rightly did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written: ‘This people honors me with their lips, but their heart is far away from me. But in vain do they worship me, teaching as doctrines the precepts of men.’ Neglecting the commandment of God, you hold to the tradition of men” (Mark 7:6-8). Was there anything wrong with washing their hands before eating? Of course not! But there was a great deal wrong with taking what seemed a good idea, and making a law or rule of it, and requiring others to follow it. That is precisely what the Jews were trying to do.

Looking for Unity

I don’t believe there is any question that the Jews, when they made their creed, were sincere in trying to help people understand God’s will, at least in the beginning. But there was an inherent flaw in their reasoning, and in the reasoning of all whom would make a creed today. They seek to place the thoughts and ideas of man on the same level with God’s word. Even if their intentions were good, their explanation of what God meant could not take the place of what God said. In that same sense, every creed of man falls into the same category as that of the Jews. They “make void” the word of God.

In the late 18th century and the beginning of the 19th, there began a movement in this country among people in many different denominations to find a basis for unity. The conclusion; the principle thing separating believers in Christ were the creeds written by men. Each denomination had its own, different from the creeds of the others. Barton W. Stone, Alexander Campbell, John Smith, Walter Scott and dozens of other men like them, felt it was necessary to “go back to the Bible.” Some of these, in their zeal to explain their new beliefs, put them into creeds! Fortunately, they quickly saw the error of that and determined the Bible alone would govern them. The decision was made that no man-made set of rules, or creed, would be allowed.

We fail to learn from the past, and thus we see the same thing happening in churches across the land. What we see is peopleThe End Justifies The Means Is Not Expedient expressing their views as to how worship services should be run or what they believe and expecting those meeting with them to abide by these “creeds.” However, the concept that the end justifies the means is a concept most people operate under. As with the past creeds, it is done with the assumption that doing it this way is an expedient. While, as with past creeds, the things these creeds contain may not, in and of themselves be wrong. But, it is a problem of making law where God has not.

Let us look at what determines a thing to be expedient

In order for a thing to be expedient it must be lawful.

The apostle Paul wrote, “All things are lawful for me, but not all things are profitable. All things are lawful for me, but I will not be mastered by anything” (1 Cor 6:12). Later on in the same letter he says, “All things are lawful, but not all things are profitable. All things are lawful, but not all things edify” (1 Cor 10:23). In these passages Paul teaches expediency must come within the realm of that which is lawful. If something is not within the scope of that which is authorized; if there is no precept, approved example, or logical conclusion in the scripture to authorize the practice, it has no Divine authority.

For a thing to be expedient it cannot be specified.

When God specifies there is no choice but to obey or disobey. In matters specified, faith demands obedience. Expediency in human wisdom involves the right of choice within the realm of those things included in what God has authorized. To go beyond that which is specified or offer a substitute is to add to what God has said instead of aiding obedience to His word.

For a thing to be expedient, it must edify.

Paul understood this (1 Cor 10:23-33; 14:26 ). If something is a matter of choice or expediency (human wisdom or judgment) and its practice would tear down and destroy what God would have built up by creating disunity, dissension and division in the body of Christ, it is sinful and wrong. If God commands it, we must  do it no matter what the consequences. But if it is non-essential (God having left the choice to human wisdom) and we demand or enforce that which destroys the peace and unity of God’s children, we sin. All of the seeming good we might accomplish by such a course would not overcome the wrong done by it.

A thing must not offend the conscience of a brother if it is to be expedient.

Paul wrote, “Give no offense either to Jews or to Greeks or to the church of God” (1 Cor 10:32). We are taught to forgo a matter of personal liberty instead of leading a brother to sin. He sins by violating his conscience in partaking in that which he believes to be wrong (1 Cor. 8:7-13). If a method of doing something in the Lord’s church is a matter of expediency, we cannot force upon the consciences of others those things which our judgment may approve but which are contrary to their understanding and which, appear to them to be wrong or sinful without sinning ourselves.

An addition to God’s word or a substitution for God’s way is not an expedient.

Remember, an expedient must first be lawful. Every addition or substitution is relying upon human wisdom, and as such is unlawful. Such is not a matter of expediency, but is transgression of God’s will. Expediency involves the right of choice within the realm of that which is authorized in the New Testament. It is not a course of authority within itself.

If we apply this test to creeds, regardless of their purpose, we will find they do not pass the test. Therefore let us abandon every creed and simply rely on the Bible for our direction in our service to God.

Editors Note: Some of the information as to establishing expediencies is taken from “Walking By Faith,” by Roy Cogdill.

See Also:

What is Truth

Whose Responsibility is it?